Modern ships have become ever more complex and automated over the past four decades. In the 1970s, most of the equipment was analog and very little was integrated into a system; ships still used radio telegraphs to communicate to land-based stations. This has all changed, and we now work with totally digital, integrated and system-based equipment. Most vessels now have some type of internet access, and as ships become ever more sophisticated and better connected to the outside world, cyber security is fast becoming one of the maritime sector's biggest challenges.
Some factors impacting the maritime threat landscape include the recent development and usage of cloud storage and applications, stealth or shadow IT (home-grown solutions without corporate approval) and continued issues with usage of personal devices. Added to that are improper or absent training with human or system error.
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